(8.) ANDREW JACKSON (1767-1845)
Defeated by John Quincy Adams/John Calhoun, 1824
Jackson was a very forceful man, the idol of his party and loyal to friends. He was hard and unyielding toward opposition. He was U. S. Senator from Tennessee when defeated in his first try for president, but he ran successfully in 1828 and was reelected in 1832.
Begun by Jefferson, he developed the Spoils System. National issues between the parties at this time were the recharting of the National Bank and opposition to the Congressional Caucus for choosing presidential candidates.
Jackson’s opponents used his domestic affairs as weapons against him and for this he fought several duels. He had long been a leader in the Indian Wars, his military career having begun in boyhood. He became a great hero in the second war with Great Britain by winning a crucial victory at New Orleans.
Although a strong party man, he refused to follow Calhoun’s lead in the nullification Rebellion which could have precipitated a civil war thirty years sooner. He said, “The Union must be maintained.” When his chosen successor, Martin Van Buren, took over, he retired to his home, “The Hermitage,” with an even greater popularity than while in office.